The aggregate of individuals, organizations, or systems that collect, process, or disseminate information; also included is the information itself. The actors include leaders, decision makers, individuals, and organizations. Resources include the materials and systems employed to collect, analyse, apply, or disseminate information. The information environment is where humans and automated systems observe, orient, decide, and act upon information, and is therefore the principal environment of decision making. Even though the information environment is considered distinct, it resides within each of the four domains.
Origin of the term comes from ancient times when slaves (then animals) were branded by their owners with a unique mark.
The process involved in creating a unique name and image for a product in the consumers’ mind, mainly through advertising campaigns with a consistent theme. Branding aims to establish a significant and differentiated presence in the market that attracts and retains loyal customers.
A name, term, design, symbol, or any other feature that identifies one seller’s good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. The legal term for brand is trademark. A brand may identify one item, a family of items, or all items of that seller. If used for the firm as a whole, the preferred term is trade name.
In architecture and interior design, branded environments extend the experience of an organization’s brand, or distinguishing characteristics as expressed in names, symbols and designs, to the design of interior or exterior physical settings. It uses space as a physical embodiment of the brand to create a ‘brand space’ . This is achieved through ‘architecture, interiors, lighting, graphics, landscape’ in spaces such as retail stores, showrooms, trade-fair booths and office environments.
The symbol TM is used to provide notice of a claim of common-law rights in a trademark. A TM usually is used in connection with an unregistered mark, to inform potential infringers that a term, slogan, logo or other indicator is being claimed as a trademark. Use of the TM symbol does not guarantee that the owner’s mark will be protected under trademark laws. The owner may continue to use TM should registration of the mark be refused.
The symbol ® is a notice of registered ownership used in many countries or regions to advise the public that a trademark or service mark is registered and to provide constructive notice of the legal ownership status of the mark with which it is used. The ® symbol should be used only in connection with registered trademarks or service marks. In the United States, use of ® may be instituted only after registration of the mark is granted. Use of ® with an unregistered mark may result in claims of fraud where the owner demonstrates intent, knowing and willful misuse, and attempts to deceive or mislead consumers, or in other difficulties for the owner in trying to obtain and/or enforce its trademark rights.
The symbol SM functions similarly to the symbol TM, in that it is used to provide notice of a claim of common-law rights in a mark; however, it is used in connection with a service mark, covering services, such as banking or legal services, rather than tangible goods. Use of the SM symbol does not guarantee that the owner’s mark will be protected under trademark laws.
This is the copyright symbol. When someone creates an original work, they can use the copyright symbol to make it clear that it is theirs and other people do not have the right to use any part of it without their permission.
There is no registration process required to make your copyright official (as there is for patents and trademarks). An idea can’t be copyrighted, but as soon as you have recorded your idea in a physical format, it is automatically copyright protected.
The copyright symbol is not needed for a work to be protected; it is just a reminder to others that the person who created that work reserves the right to control if and how other people use it.